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Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld

In office
January 20, 2001 – December 18, 2006
President George W. Bush
Preceded by William Cohen
Succeeded by Robert Gates
In office
November 20, 1975 – January 20, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by James R. Schlesinger
Succeeded by Harold Brown

In office
September 1974 – November 1975
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Alexander Haig
Succeeded by Dick Cheney

In office
February 1973 – September 1974
President Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford
Preceded by David M. Kennedy
Succeeded by David K.E. Bruce

Born July 9, 1932 (1932-07-09) (age 87)
Evanston, Illinois,
Political party Republican Wikipedia
Spouse(s) Joyce H. Pierson
Children Valerie J. Rumsfeld Richard
Marcy K. Rumsfeld Walczak
Donald Nicholas Rumsfeld
Alma mater Princeton University Wikipedia
Religion Presbyterian
Signature Donald Rumsfeld's signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1954–1989
Rank 20px Captain
Unit Navy Reserve (1957–1975)
Individual Ready Reserve (1975–1989)


Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is an American businessman, retired Navy Fighter Pilot, diplomat, and politician who served as the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977 and as the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. He is both the youngest (43 years old) and the oldest (74 years old) person to have served as Secretary of Defense as well as the only person to have served in the position for two non-consecutive terms. Overall, he was the second longest serving defense secretary behind Robert McNamara. Rumsfeld was White House Chief of Staff Wikipedia during part of the Ford Administration and also served in various positions in the Nixon Administration. He served four terms in the United States House of Representatives, and served as the United States Permanent Representative to NATO. He was an aviator in the United States Navy between 1954 and 1957 before transferring to the Naval Reserve. In public life, he has served as an official in numerous federal commissions and councils.

Background and familyEdit


Donald Rumsfeld was born on July 9, 1932, in Evanston, Illinois,[1] to George Donald Rumsfeld and Jeannette Huster. His great-grandfather, Johann Heinrich Rumsfeld, emigrated from Weyhe near Bremen in Northern Germany in 1876.[2] Growing up in Winnetka, Illinois, Rumsfeld became an Eagle Scout Wikipedia in 1949 and is the recipient of both the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award Wikipedia[3] and its Silver Buffalo Award Wikipedia in 2006. He was a camp counselor at the Northeast Illinois Council's Camp Ma-Ka-Ja-Wan in the late 1940s and a ranger at Philmont Scout Ranch Wikipedia in 1949.[4] Rumsfeld later bought a vacation house 30 miles (48 km) west of Philmont at Taos, New Mexico.[5]


Rumsfeld went to Baker Demonstration School Wikipedia, a private middle school, and later graduated[6] from New Trier High School Wikipedia. He attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC Wikipedia partial scholarships. While at Princeton he roomed with another future Secretary of Defense, Frank Carlucci.

His Princeton University senior thesis was titled "The Steel Seizure Case Wikipedia of 1952 and Its Effects on Presidential Powers."[7]

In 1956 he attended Georgetown University Law Center but did not graduate.

Domestic lifeEdit

Rumsfeld married Joyce H. Pierson on December 27, 1954. They have three children and six grandchildren.

Rumsfeld lives in St. Michaels, Maryland, in a former plantation house, site of Frederick Douglass Wikipedia's breaking by Edward Covey Wikipedia.[8]

Private career (1977–2000)Edit


In early 1977 Rumsfeld briefly lectured at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School and Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, located in Chicago, Illinois near his home town of Evanston.


From 1977 to 1985 Rumsfeld served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and then Chairman of G. D. Searle & Company, a worldwide pharmaceutical company based in Skokie, Illinois. During his tenure at Searle, Rumsfeld led the company's financial turnaround, thereby earning awards as the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). In 1985, Searle was sold to Monsanto Company Wikipedia. Rumsfeld is believed to have earned around $12 million from this sale.[9]

Rumsfeld served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development of the first all-digital HDTV technology. After taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Rumsfeld returned to private business in late 1993.

From January 1997 until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense in January 2001, Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences, Inc. Gilead Sciences is the developer of Tamiflu Wikipedia (Oseltamivir Wikipedia), which is used in the treatment of {{wplink|H5N1|bird flu]].[10]

As a result, Rumsfeld's holdings in the company grew significantly when avian flu became a subject of popular anxiety during his later term as Secretary of Defense. Following standard practice, Rumsfeld recused Wikipedia himself from any decisions involving Gilead, and he directed the Pentagon's General Counsel Wikipedia to issue instructions outlining what he could and could not be involved in if there were an avian flu pandemic and the Pentagon had to respond.[11][12][13]

Continued part-time public serviceEdit


During his business career, Rumsfeld continued public service in various posts, including:

  • Member of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control—Reagan Administration (1982–1986);
  • President Reagan's Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982–1983);
  • Senior Advisor to President Reagan's Panel on Strategic Systems (1983–1984);
  • Member of the U.S. Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan Relations—Reagan Administration (1983–1984);
  • President Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East (1983–1984);
  • Member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987–1990);
  • Member of the National Economic Commission (1988–1989);
  • Member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense University (1988–1992);
  • Chairman Emeritus, Defense Contractor, Carlyle Group (1989–2005);
  • Member of the Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1989–1991);
  • Member of the Board of Directors for ABB Ltd. (1990–2001);
  • FCC's High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992–1993);
  • Chairman, Commission on the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (1998–1999);
  • Member of the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999–2000);
  • Member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR);
  • Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization (2000);
  • Honorary Vice-Chancellor of Yale University (2001), honoring Rumsfeld's U.S. foreign policy work.

Rumsfeld served as United Way Inter-governmental Affairs Director in Washington, D.C. from 1986 to 1989. He was asked to serve the U.S. State Department as a "foreign policy consultant," a role he held from 1990 to 1993. He was also a board member of the RAND Corporation.

ABB and North KoreaEdit

Rumsfeld sat on ABB's board from 1990 to 2001. ABB—based in Zürich, Switzerland—is a European engineering giant formed through the merger between ASEA of Sweden and Brown Boveri of Switzerland. In 2000 this company sold two light-water nuclear reactors to KEDO for installation in North Korea, as part of the 1994 agreed framework reached under President Bill Clinton.

The sale of the nuclear technology was a high-profile contract. ABB's then chief executive, Göran Lindahl, visited North Korea in November 1999 to announce ABB's "wide-ranging, long-term cooperation agreement" with the communist government. Rumsfeld's office said that the Secretary of Defense did not "recall it being brought before the board at any time." But ABB spokesman Björn Edlund told Fortune that "board members were informed about this project."[14]

Special Envoy to the Middle EastEdit

File:Saddam rumsfeld.jpg

During his period as Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East (November 1983–May 1984), Rumsfeld was the most senior conduit for crucial American military intelligence, hardware and strategic advice to Saddam Hussein Wikipedia, then fighting Iran in the Iran–Iraq War Wikipedia. The United States' pro-Iraq policy was adopted when the tide of the Iran–Iraq War turned strongly in Iran's favor, and it looked as if Iran might overrun Iraq completely. When Rumsfeld visited Baghdad Wikipedia on December 19–December 20, 1983, he and Saddam Hussein had a 90-minute discussion that covered Syria's occupation of Lebanon; preventing Syrian and Iranian expansion; preventing arms sales to Iran by foreign countries; and increasing Iraqi oil production via a possible new oil pipeline across Jordan. According to declassified U.S. State Department documents, Rumsfeld also informed Tariq Aziz (Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister) that: "Our efforts to assist were inhibited by certain things that made it difficult for us ... citing the use of chemical weapons."[15] Rumsfeld brought many gifts from the Reagan administration to Saddam Hussein. These gifts included pistols, medieval spiked hammers and a pair of golden cowboy spurs. Until the 1991 Gulf War Wikipedia, these were all displayed at Saddam Hussein's Victory Museum in Baghdad which held all the gifts bestowed on Saddam by friendly national leaders.[16]

During his brief bid for the 1988 Republican nomination, Rumsfeld stated that restoring full relations with Iraq was one of his best achievements. This was not a particularly controversial position at a time when U.S. policy considered supporting a totalitarian yet secular Iraq an effective bulwark against the expansion of Iranian revolutionary] Islamist influence.

George H. W. Bush and Clinton yearsEdit

Rumsfeld was a member of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the boards of trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation; the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships; the Hoover Institution at Stanford University; and the National Park Foundation. He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the Congressional Leadership's National Security Advisory Group.

During the 1996 presidential election Wikipedia, Rumsfeld served as national chairman to the campaign of Bob Dole.[17]

Rumsfeld was a founder and active member of the Project for the New American Century, a neo-conservative think-tank dedicated to maintaining US Primacy. On January 29, 1998, he signed a PNAC letter calling for President Bill Clinton Wikipedia to implement "regime change" in Iraq.[18]

From January to July 1998 Rumsfeld chaired the nine-member Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. They concluded that Iraq, Iran, and North Korea could develop intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities in five to ten years and that U.S. intelligence would have little warning before such systems were deployed.[19]

Presidential and Vice Presidential aspirationsEdit

During the 1976 Republican National Convention Wikipedia, Rumsfeld received one vote for Vice President of the United States Wikipedia, although he did not seek the office, and the nomination was easily won by Ford's choice, Senator Bob Dole.[20] During the 1980 Republican National Convention Wikipedia he also received one vote for V.P.[21] Economist Milton Friedman said that he regarded Reagan's pick of George H. W. Bush as "the worst decision not only of his campaign but of his presidency," and that Rumsfeld was his preference. "Had he been chosen," Friedman noted, "I believe he would have succeeded Reagan as president and the sorry Bush-Clinton period would never have occurred."[22]

Rumsfeld briefly sought the Presidential nomination in 1988 Wikipedia, but withdrew from the race before primaries Wikipedia began.[23]

During the 1996 election Wikipedia he initially formed a presidential exploratory committee Wikipedia, but declined to formally enter the race.

Return to government (2001–2006)Edit



Rumsfeld was named Defense Secretary soon after President George W. Bush took office in 2001. He immediately announced a series of sweeping reviews intended to transform the U.S. military into a lighter force. These studies were led by Pentagon analyst Andrew Marshall.

File:Rumsfeld and cheney.jpg

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Rumsfeld led the military planning and execution of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq Wikipedia. Rumsfeld pushed hard to send as small a force as possible to both conflicts, a concept codified as the Rumsfeld Doctrine.

Rumsfeld's plan resulted in a lightning invasion that took Baghdad in well under a month with very few American casualties. Many government buildings, plus major museums, electrical generation infrastructure, and even oil equipment were looted and vandalized during the transition from the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime to the establishment of the Coalition Provisional Authority. A violent insurrection began shortly after the military operation started.

After the German and French governments voiced opposition to invading Iraq, Rumsfeld labeled these countries as part of "Old Europe", implying that countries that supported the war were part of a newer, modern Europe.[24]

File:Rumsfeld Putin.jpg

Bush retained Rumsfeld after his 2004 presidential re-election. In December 2004, Rumsfeld came under fire after a "town-hall" meeting with U.S. troops where he responded to a soldier's comments about inferior military equipment by saying "As you know, you go to war with the Army you have. They're not the Army you might want or wish to have at a later time."[2]

September 11, 2001Edit

File:Rumsfeld and Giuliani at Ground Zero.jpg

Rumsfeld's activities during the September 11, 2001 attacks were outlined in a Pentagon press briefing on September 15, 2001. Within three hours of the start of the first hijacking and two hours of American Airlines Flight 11 striking the World Trade Center, Rumsfeld raised the defense condition signaling of the United States offensive readiness to DEFCON Wikipedia 3; the highest it had been since the Arab-Israeli war in 1973 Wikipedia.[25]

File:Margaret Thatcher 060912-F-0193C-006.jpg

On the morning of 9/11, Rumsfeld spoke at a Pentagon breakfast meeting, where he stated "sometime in the next two, four, six, eight, ten, twelve months there would be an event that would occur in the world that would be sufficiently shocking that it would remind people again how important it is to have a strong healthy defense department that contributes to... that underpins peace and stability in our world. And that is what underpins peace and stability."[26]

After the strike on the Pentagon by American Airlines Flight 77, Rumsfeld went out to the parking lot to assist with rescue efforts.[27] He stated; "I wanted to see what had happened. I wanted to see if people needed help. I went downstairs and helped for a bit with some people on stretchers. Then I came back up here and started -- I realized I had to get back up here and get at it."[26]

Run-up to IraqEdit

At 2:40 p.m. in the afternoon of September 11, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was issuing rapid orders to his aides to look for evidence of Iraqi involvement, according to notes taken by senior policy official Stephen Cambone. "Best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H." — meaning Saddam Hussein — "at same time. Not only UBL" (Osama bin Laden), Cambone's notes quoted Rumsfeld as saying. "Need to move swiftly — Near term target needs — go massive — sweep it all up. Things related and not."[28][29]

Military decisionsEdit

pt 1Edit

Rumsfeld stirred controversy by quarreling for months with the CIA over who had the authority to fire Hellfire missiles Wikipedia from Predator drones Wikipedia, although according to The 9/11 Commission Report, the armed Predator was not ready for deployment until early 2002.[30]

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon note:

These quarrels kept the Predator from being used against al Qaeda.... The delay infuriated the terrorist hunters at the CIA. One individual who was at the center of the action called this episode "typical" and complained that "Rumsfeld never missed an opportunity to fail to cooperate. The fact is, the Secretary of Defense is an obstacle. He has helped the terrorists."[31]

Following September 11, 2001, Rumsfeld was in a meeting whose subject was the review of the Department of Defense's (Contingency) Plan in the event of a war with Iraq (U.S. Central Command OPLAN 1003-98). The plan (as it was then conceived) contemplated troop levels of up to 500,000, which Rumsfeld opined was far too many. Gordon and Trainor wrote:

As [General] Newbold outlined the plan ... it was clear that Rumsfeld was growing increasingly irritated. For Rumsfeld, the plan required too many troops and supplies and took far too long to execute. It was, Rumsfeld declared, the "product of old thinking and the embodiment of everything that was wrong with the military."

[T]he Plan ... reflected long-standing military principles about the force levels that were needed to defeat Iraq, control a population of more than 24 million, and secure a nation the size of California with porous borders. Rumsfeld's numbers, in contrast, seemed to be pulled out of thin air. He had dismissed one of the military's long-standing plans, and suggested his own force level without any of the generals raising a cautionary flag.[32]

pt 2Edit

In a September 2007 interview with The Daily Telegraph, General Mike Jackson, the head of the British army during the invasion, criticised Rumsfeld's plans for the occupation as "intellectually bankrupt," adding that Rumsfeld is "one of those most responsible for the current situation in Iraq," and that he felt that "the US approach to combating global terrorism is 'inadequate' and too focused on military might rather than nation-building and diplomacy." [33]

In Rumsfeld's final television interview as Secretary of Defense, he responded to a question by Brit Hume as to whether he pressed General Tommy Franks Wikipedia to lower his request for 400,000 troops for the war by stating:

Absolutely not. That's a mythology [sic Wikipedia]. This town is filled with this kind of nonsense. The people who decide the levels of forces on the ground are not the Secretary of Defense or the President. We hear recommendations, but the recommendations are made by the combatant commanders and by members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Wikipedia and there hasn't been a minute in the last six years when we have not had the number of troops that the combatant commanders have requested.[34]

Rumsfeld told Hume that Franks ultimately decided against such a troop level.[35]

Role in US public relations effortEdit

An April 2006 memo lists instructions to Pentagon staff including:

"Keep elevating the threat"... "Talk about Somalia, the Philippines etc. Make the American people realise they are surrounded in the world by violent extremists." [36][37]

As Secretary of Defense, Rumsfeld was deliberate in crafting the public message from the Department of Defense. People will "rally" to the word "sacrifice," Rumsfeld noted after a meeting. "They are looking for leadership. Sacrifice = Victory." In May 2004, Rumsfeld considered whether to redefine the war on terrorism as a fight against "worldwide insurgency." He advised aides "to test what the results could be" if the war on terrorism were renamed.[37] Rumsfeld also ordered specific public Pentagon attacks on and responses to US newspaper columns that reported the negative aspects of the war, which he often personally reviewed before they were sent.[37]

In October 2003, Rumsfeld personally approved a secret Pentagon "roadmap" on public relations, calling for "boundaries" between information operations abroad and the news media at home, but providing for no such limits. The Roadmap advances a policy according to which as long as the US government does not intentionally target the American public, it does not matter that psychological operations Wikipedia, reach the American public. The Roadmap acknowledges that "information intended for foreign audiences, including public diplomacy and PSYOP, increasingly is consumed by our domestic audience" -- but argues that "the distinction between foreign and domestic audiences becomes more a question of USG [U.S. government] intent rather than information dissemination practices."[38]

Prisoner torture and abuseEdit

File:Rumsfeld-4 hours a day.png

Department of Defense's (DOD) preliminary concerns for holding, housing, and interrogating captured prisoners on the battlefield were raised during the military build-up to the Iraq War. Due to the history with Saddam’s military forces surrendering when faced with military action, many within the DOD including Rumsfeld and United States Central Command General Tommy Franks decided it was in the best interest of all to hand these prisoners over to their respective countries. Additionally, it was determined that maintaining a large holding facility was unrealistic at the time. However, the use of many facilities such as Abu Ghraib would be utilized to house prisoners prior to handing them over. However, Rumsfeld defended the Bush administration's decision to detain enemy combatants without protection under the Third Geneva Convention. There was therefore a large amount of pressure from many American organizations and international bodies to enforce the Geneva Conventions. Because of this, critics (including the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee 11-08 Executive Summary, vote 17-0) would hold Rumsfeld personally responsible for the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. Rumsfeld himself said: "These events occurred on my watch as secretary of defense. I am accountable for them." [39]

In November 2006, the former U.S. Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, in charge of Abu Ghraib prison until early 2004, told Spain's El Pais newspaper she had seen a letter apparently signed by Rumsfeld that allowed civilian contractors to use techniques such as sleep deprivation during interrogation.

"The methods consisted of making prisoners stand for long periods, sleep deprivation ... playing music at full volume, having to sit in uncomfortably ... Rumsfeld authorised these specific techniques."
She said that this was contrary to the Geneva Convention Wikipedia and quoted from the same "Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind." According to Karpinski, the handwritten signature was above his printed name and in the same handwriting in the margin was written: "Make sure this is accomplished."

pt 2Edit

There have been no comments from either the Pentagon or U.S. Army spokespeople in Iraq on Karpinski's accusations.[40]

In a memo read by Rumsfeld detailing how Guantanamo interrogators would induce stress in prisoners by forcing them to remain standing in one position for a maximum of 4 hours, Rumsfeld scrolled a handwritten note in the margin reading: "I stand for 8-10 hours a day. Why is standing [by prisoners] limited to four hours? D.R.".[41] This memo was later declassified and the The Economist, on its edition of 16 February 16, 2008, published a demand for Rumsfelds resignation.

Manfred Nowak, the special representative on torture at the UN Commission on Human Rights, stated in January 2009 that Rumsfeld and others should be prosecuted for war crimes because of their approval of the interrogation methods used on prisoners at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp Wikipedia.[42]

Baghdad Museum actionsEdit

After the Iraq invasion in 2003, U.S. troops, the sole power in the city at the time, were intensely criticized for not protecting the historical artifacts and treasures located at the museums and other cultural institutions like the national library and the Saddam Art Center, a museum of modern Iraqi art.

When asked at the time why U.S. troops did not actively seek to stop the lawlessness, Rumsfeld infamously replied: "Stuff happens ... and it's untidy and freedom's untidy, and free people are free to make mistakes and commit crimes and do bad things. They're also free to live their lives and do wonderful things. And that's what's going to happen here." [43] He further commented that: "The images you are seeing on television you are seeing over, and over, and over, and it's the same picture of some person walking out of some building with a vase, and you see it 20 times, and you think, "My goodness, were there that many vases?" (Laughter.) "Is it possible that there were that many vases in the whole country?" [43]

Calls for resignationEdit

In an unprecedented move in modern U.S. history,[44] eight retired generals and admirals called for Rumsfeld to resign in early 2006 in what was called the "Generals Revolt," accusing him of "abysmal" military planning and lack of strategic competence.[45][46][47] Rumsfeld rebuffed these criticisms, stating that "out of thousands and thousands of admirals and generals, if every time two or three people disagreed we changed the secretary of defense of the United States, it would be like a merry-go-round."[48] Commentator Pat Buchanan reported at the time that "Washington Post columnist David Ignatius, who travels often to Iraq and supports the war, says that the generals' and admirals' views mirror those of 75 percent of the officers in the field, and probably more."[49] Bush responded to the criticism by stating that Rumsfeld is "exactly what is needed,"[50] and also defended him in his controversial decider remark.


File:Bush and Rumsfeld shakes hands, November 8, 2006.jpg

On November 1, 2006, President Bush stated he would stand by Rumsfeld as defense secretary for the length of his term as president.[51] Rumsfeld wrote a resignation letter dated November 6, and, per the stamp on the letter, Bush saw it on Election Day, November 7.[52] In the elections Wikipedia, the House and the Senate shifted to Democratic control. After the elections, on November 8, Bush announced Rumsfeld would resign his position as Secretary of Defense. Many Republicans were unhappy with the delay, believing they would have won more votes if voters had known Rumsfeld was resigning.[52]

Bush nominated Robert Gates for the position.[53][54][55] At a press conference announcing the resignation of Rumsfeld and the nomination of Gates, Bush remarked, "America is safer and the world is more secure because of the service and the leadership of Donald Rumsfeld."[56]

On December 18, 2006, Rumsfeld's resignation took effect and Gates was sworn in as his successor. One of his last actions as defense secretary was to pay a surprise visit to Iraq on December 10, 2006, to bid farewell to the United States military serving in Iraq.[57]

Including his time serving as the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Ford from 1975 to 1977, Rumsfeld is the second-longest-serving Secretary of Defense in history, falling nine days short of the term of the longest-serving Pentagon chief, the Vietnam-era Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara.

In a farewell ceremony on December 16, 2006, Rumsfeld's long-time political ally Vice President Dick Cheney, who worked with him in the Ford administration and who also had served as a secretary of defense, called the secretary "the finest secretary of defense this nation has ever had."

Private career (2006–)Edit

In the months after his resignation, Rumsfeld toured the New York publishing houses in preparation for a potential memoir.[58] After receiving what one industry source labeled "big bids," he reached an agreement with the Penguin Group to publish the book under its Sentinel HC imprint.[59] Rumsfeld declined to accept an advance and has decided to donate any proceeds from the work to a charitable foundation he established to promote public service among "promising young individuals."[59] The memoir is due to be released in 2010.[59]

In May 2007, Time magazine reported that Rumsfeld was in the early stages of establishing an educational foundation that would provide fellowships to talented individuals from the private sector who want to serve for some time in government. Rumsfeld would finance the foundation.[60]

In September 2007, Rumsfeld received a one-year appointment as a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University Wikipedia,[61] joining (among others) retired Army Gen. John P. Abizaid, former commander of US forces in Iraq, and fellow conservatives George Shultz and Newt Gingrich. He will participate in the institution's new taskforce studying post-September 11 ideology and non-state terror.

Electoral historyEdit

Main article: Electoral history of Donald Rumsfeld

Affiliation historyEdit

Institutional affiliationsEdit

Government posts, panels, and commissionsEdit

Corporate connections and business interestsEdit


Intellectual heritageEdit


Main article: Donald Rumsfeld:Timeline

See alsoEdit


  1. Donald Rumsfeld
  2. Biography: Donald Rumsfeld November 8, 2006
  3. Scouting magazine "Speakers Highlight Scouting's Core Values". Scouting 94 (4): 35.  September 2006
  4. Secretary Rumsfeld's Remarks at the White House Conference on Cooperative Conservation — U.S. Department of Defense News Transcript — August 29, 2005
  5. Donald and Joyce Rumsfeld Marriage Profile at
  6. Habermehl, Kris (2007-01-25). "Fire Breaks Out At Prestigious High School". Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  7. Princeton University Senior Theses Full Record: Donald Henry Rumsfeld
  8. Kilborn, Peter T (2006-06-30). "Weekends With the President's Men". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  9. "Winter comes for a Beltway lion; Rumsfeld rose and fell with his conviction intact". Chicago Tribune: p. 17. 2006-11-12. 
  10. Press Releases: Gilead
  11. Schmit, Julie (November 17, 2005). "Roche, Gilead Sciences resolve Tamiflu conflict". USA Today. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  12. Schwartz, Nelson D. (October 31, 2005). "Rumsfeld's growing stake in Tamiflu". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  13. "Bird Flu: A Corporate Bonanza for the Biotech Industry". Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  14. "Rummy's North Korea Connection; What did Donald Rumsfeld know about ABB's deal to build nuclear reactors there? And why won't he talk about it?". Fortune: p. 75. 2003-05-12. 
  15. George Washington University, National Archives, Iraq, PDF format
  16. Lucas, Dean (2006-02-17). "Famous Pictures Magazine - Donald Rumsfeld Shakes Hands With Saddam Hussein". 
  17. "Dole-Kemp Campaign names former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld as its national chairman," Press Release by Dole-Kemp 1996, August 27, 1996
  18. Project for the New American Century letter to U.S. President Clinton, January 29, 1998
  19. Report of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States
  20. OurCampaigns
  21. OurCampaigns
  22. "Two Lucky People: Memoirs" by Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman. 1998. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press): p. 391
  23. OurCampaigns
  24. "Outrage at 'old Europe' remarks". BBC News. January 23, 2003. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  25. The 9/11 Commission Report
  26. 26.0 26.1
  27., p.54
  28. Roberts, Joel (September 4, 2002). "Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11". CBS News. Retrieved October 7, 2009. 
  29. Borger, Julian (February 24, 2006). "Blogger bares Rumsfeld's post 9/11 orders". Guardian News and Media Limited (London). Retrieved October 7, 2009. 
  30. [1] (pp. 189–90, 211–214)
  31. Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Next Attack (New York: Times Books, 2005) ISBN 0-8050-7941-6 p. 161.
  32. Id.Gordon, Michael R. and Bernard E. Trainor, Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq], 2006. Book excerpt from the Denver Post
  33. "Gen Sir Mike Jackson's attack draws US ire", Daily Telegraph (online), September 1, 2007
  34. Special Report with Brit Hume December 14, 2006
  35. Bumiller, Elisabeth (October 13, 2007). "Blunt Talk About Iraq at Army School". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  36. "Rumsfeld 'kept up fear of terror attacks'", Daily Telegraph UK, March 11, 2007
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 "From the Desk of Donald Rumsfeld ...", Washington Post, November 1, 2007
  38. National Security Archive, "Rumsfeld's Roadmap to Propaganda," National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 177, January 26, 2006,
  39. "Rumsfeld 'the best'" — CNN
  40. — "Rumsfeld okayed abuses says former US Army general" Reuters News
  41. Diamond, John (2004-06-23). "Rumsfeld OK'd harsh treatment". USA Today. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  42. "Bush Should Face Prosecution, Says UN Representative". Deutsche Welle (German Public Radio - World Service). 2009-01-21. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 "D Rumsfelt - Stuff Happens", April 11, 2003 2:00 PM EDT
  44. "The Anger Of The Generals Unprecedented In Modern Times". Space Dailiy (United Press International). 2006-04-19. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  45. Cloud, David S.; Schmitt, Eric (April 14, 2006). "More Retired Generals Call for Rumsfeld's Resignation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  46. Baldwin, Tom (2006-04-18). "Revenge of the battered generals". The Times (London). Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  47. Baker, Peter; White, Josh. "Bush Speaks Out for Rumsfeld". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  48. How many retired generals are there? - By Daniel Engber - Slate Magazine
  49. WorldNetDaily: The generals' revolt
  50. " - Bush: Rumsfeld 'exactly what is needed'  - Apr 14, 2006". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  51. ABC News: ABC News
  52. 52.0 52.1 Roberts, Kristin (2007-08-15). "Rumsfeld resigned before election, letter shows". Yahoo! News (Reuters). Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  53. "Rumsfeld replaced after poll loss". BBC News. November 9, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  54. "Rice Offered to Resign Following Bush's 2004 Re-Election". Fox News. October 2, 2006. 
  55. Rumsfeld quitting as defense secretary. Retrieved November 8, 2006.
  56. President Bush Nominates Dr. Robert M. Gates to be Secretary of Defense
  57. Rumsfeld Bids Farewell to GIs in Iraq
  58. Publishers Abuzz Over Possible Rumsfeld Book - June 27, 2007 - The New York Sun
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Italie, Hillel (2008-04-14). "Donald Rumsfeld memoir to hit shelves in 2010". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  60. Michael Duffy, "Donald Rumsfeld's Next Move", Time magazine, May 18, 2007
  61. Rumsfeld appointed distinguished visiting fellow at Hoover. Accessed October 10, 2007. Stanford Report, September 12, 2007.

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