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The 9/11 attacks had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the American people. Many police officers and rescue workers elsewhere in the country took leaves of absence to travel to New York City to assist in the process of recovering bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers. Blood donations across the U.S. also saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11.
Over 3000 children were left without one or more parents. Children's reactions both to these actual losses, yet also to feared losses of life and a protective environment in the aftermath of the attacks are well-documented, as were their effects on surviving caregivers.
For the first time in history, SCATANA was invoked forcing all non-emergency civilian aircraft in the United States and several other countries including Canada to be immediately grounded, stranding tens of thousands of passengers across the world. Any international flights were closed to American airspace by the Federal Aviation Administration, causing about five hundred flights to be turned back or redirected to other countries. Canada received 226 of the diverted flights and launched Operation Yellow Ribbon to deal with the large numbers of grounded planes and stranded passengers.
Military operations following the attacksEdit
At 2:40 p.m. in the afternoon of September 11, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was issuing rapid orders to his aides to look for evidence of Iraqi involvement, according to notes taken by senior policy official Stephen Cambone . "Best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H." — meaning Saddam Hussein — "at same time. Not only UBL" (Osama bin Laden), Cambone's notes quoted Rumsfeld as saying. "Need to move swiftly — Near term target needs — go massive — sweep it all up. Things related and not."
The NATO council declared that the attacks on the United States were considered an attack on all NATO nations and, as such, satisfied Article 5 of the NATO charter. Upon returning to Australia having been on an official visit to the U.S. at the time of the attacks, Australian Prime Minister John Howard invoked Article IV of the ANZUS treaty. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration announced a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing.
The second-biggest operation of the U.S. Global War on Terrorism outside of the United States, and the largest directly connected to terrorism, was the overthrow of the Taliban rule of Afghanistan by a U.S.-led coalition. The United States was not the only nation to increase its military readiness, with other notable examples being the Philippines and Indonesia, countries that have their own internal conflicts with Islamic terrorism.
Following the attacks, President Bush's job approval rating soared to 90%. On September 20, 2001, the U.S. president spoke before the nation and a joint session of the United States Congress, regarding the events of that day, the intervening nine days of rescue and recovery efforts, and his intent in response to those events. In addition, the highly visible role played by New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani won him high praise nationally and in New York.
Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors of the attacks and to the families of victims, such as the Coalition of 9/11 Families. By the deadline for victim's compensation, September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications had been received from the families of those who were killed.
George W. Bush's address to the people of the United States, September 11, 2001, 8:30pm EDT.
Contingency plans for the continuity of government and the evacuation of leaders were also implemented almost immediately after the attacks. Congress, however, was not told that the United States was under a continuity of government status until February 2002.
Within the United States, Congress passed and President Bush signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, creating the Department of Homeland Security, representing the largest restructuring of the U.S. government in contemporary history. Congress also passed the USA PATRIOT Act , stating that it would help detect and prosecute terrorism and other crimes.
Civil liberties groups have criticized the PATRIOT Act, saying that it allows law enforcement to invade the privacy of citizens and eliminates judicial oversight of law-enforcement and domestic intelligence gathering. The Bush Administration also invoked 9/11 as the reason to initiate a secret National Security Agency operation, "to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant".
Numerous incidents of harassment and hate crimes were reported against Middle Easterners and other "Middle Eastern-looking" people in the days following the 9/11 attacks. Sikhs were also targeted because Sikh males usually wear turbans, which are stereotypically associated with Muslims. There were reports of verbal abuse, attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the firebombing of a Hindu temple and assaults on people, including one murder: Balbir Singh Sodhi was fatally shot on September 15, 2001. He, like others, was a Sikh who was mistaken for a Muslim.)
According to a study by Ball State University, people perceived to be Middle Eastern were as likely to be victims of hate crimes as followers of Islam during this time. The study also found a similar increase in hate crimes against people who may have been perceived as members of Islam, Arabs and others thought to be of Middle Eastern origin.
A report by South Asian American advocacy group SAALT documented media coverage of 645 bias incidents against Americans of South Asian or Middle Eastern descent between September 11 and September 17, including vandalism, arson, assault, shootings, harassment, and threats.
Muslim American reactionEdit
Top Muslim organizations in the United States were swift to condemn the attacks on 9/11 and called "upon Muslim Americans to come forward with their skills and resources to help alleviate the sufferings of the affected people and their families". Top organizations include: Islamic Society of North America, American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Circle of North America, and the Shari'a Scholars Association of North America. Along with massive monetary donations, many Islamic organizations launched blood drives and provided medical assistance, food, and shelter for victims.
The attacks were denounced by mass media and governments worldwide. Across the globe, nations offered pro-American support and solidarity. Leaders in most Middle Eastern countries, and Afghanistan, condemned the attacks. Iraq was a notable exception, with an immediate official statement that "the American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity".
Tens of thousands of people attempted to flee Afghanistan following the attacks, fearing a response by the United States. Pakistan, already home to many Afghan refugees from previous Afghan conflict, closed its border with Afghanistan on September 17. Approximately one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international forces in the removal of the Taliban regime for harboring the al-Qaeda organization. Pakistani authorities moved reluctantly to align themselves with the United States in a war against the Taliban. Pakistan provided the United States a number of military airports and bases for its attack on the Taliban regime and arrested over 600 suspected al-Qaeda members, whom it handed over to the United States.
Numerous countries, including Canada, China, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, India and Pakistan introduced anti-terrorism legislation and froze the bank accounts of businesses and individuals they suspected of having al-Qaeda ties. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries, including Italy, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines arrested people they labeled terrorist suspects for the stated purpose of breaking up militant cells around the world.
In the U.S., this aroused some controversy, as critics such as the Bill of Rights Defense Committee argued that traditional restrictions on federal surveillance (e.g. COINTELPRO's monitoring of public meetings) were "dismantled" by the USA PATRIOT Act. Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and Liberty argued that certain civil rights protections were also being circumvented.
The United States set up a detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba to hold inmates they defined as "illegal enemy combatants ". The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by, among others, the European Parliament, the Organization of American States, and Amnesty International .
The international events and reactions immediately after the attacks affected the impact of the World Conference against Racism 2001, which had ended in discord and international recriminations just three days before.
As in the United States, the aftermath of the attacks saw racial tensions increase in other countries between Muslims and non Muslims.
- Main article: 9/11 conspiracy theories
Some question the official version of the bombings, the motivations behind them, and the parties involved, and have engaged in independent investigations. Most of the alternative theories see the bombings as a casus belli through a false flag to bring about increased militarization and police power. Participants in the 9/11 Truth movement have been called "truthers."
Proponents of 9/11 conspiracy theories have suggested that individuals inside the United States possessed detailed information about the attacks and deliberately chose not to prevent them, or that individuals outside of al-Qaeda planned, carried out, or assisted in the attacks. Some conspiracy theorists claim the World Trade Center did not collapse because of the crashing planes but was demolished with explosives.
This controlled demolition hypothesis is rejected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and by the American Society of Civil Engineers, who, after their research, both concluded that the impacts of jets at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires caused the collapse of both Towers.
U.S. foreign policy and relations shiftsEdit
As a result of the 9/11 attack, U.S. foreign policy shifted abruptly and dramatically. The attacks resulted directly in U.S. military action in Afghanistan beginning in 2001, even though the Taliban offered to put bin Laden on trial in a third country.
During the first few years after the 9/11 attacks, international support for an aggressive response by the U.S. ran high. However, international support for Bush administration policies withered subsequently and the public, as well as the governments of several countries, including European military allies of the United States, turned antagonistic towards the policies pursued by the United States government.
Ultimately, Bush left office with an international approval rating of his foreign policies of less than 20%. After the American 2008 election results indicated that Americans had grown weary of pursuing aggressive militaristic policies as a response to the 9/11 attacks, and after a government had been elected that had pledged to reverse such policies, popular international support for America began to rebound.
- ↑ Stein, Howard F. (2003). "Days of Awe: September 11, 2001 and its Cultural Psychodynamics". Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press) 8 (2): 187–199. doi :10.1353/psy.2003.0047. ISSN 1088-0763.
- ↑ "Asthma Rates Up Among Ground Zero Workers". Associated Press. CBS News. August 27, 2007.
- ↑ Glynn, Simone A.; Busch, MP; Schreiber, GB; Murphy, EL; Wright, DJ; Tu, Y; Kleinman, SH; Nhlbi Reds Study, Group (May 7, 2003). "Effect of a National Disaster on Blood Supply and Safety: The September 11 Experience". Journal of the American Medical Association (American Medical Association) 289 (17): 2246. doi :10.1001/jama.289.17.2246. PMID 12734136. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ↑ "Red Cross Woes". PBS. December 19, 2001. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
- ↑ Coates SW, Schechter DS (2004). Preschoolers’ traumatic stress post-9/11: Relational and developmental perspectives. Disaster Psychiatry: A Closer Look. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 27, 473–489.
- ↑ Schechter DS, Coates SW, First E (2002). Observations of acute reactions of young children and their families to the World Trade Center attacks. Journal of ZERO-TO-THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, 22(3), 9–13.
- ↑ Coates SW, Rosenthal J, Schechter DS—Eds. (2003). September 11: Trauma and Human Bonds. New York: Taylor and Francis, Inc.
- ↑ Klein, Devoe, Miranda-Julian, Linas (2009). Young children's responses to September 11th: The New York City experience. Infant Mental Health Journal. 30(1), 1–22.
- ↑ FDC (April 13, 2007). "NOTAMs/Flight Restrictions in Effect on 9/13/01". Federal Bureau of Investigation (hosted at JudicialWatch). p. 15ff.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 "Wartime". National Commission on Terrorists Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ Transport Canada (December 11, 2001). "Actions taken following September 11 terrorist attacks". Press release. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- ↑ Roberts, Joel (September 4, 2002). "Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11". CBS News. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- ↑ Borger, Julian (February 24, 2006). "Blogger bares Rumsfeld's post 9/11 orders". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- ↑ "Statement by the North Atlantic Council". NATO. September 15, 2001. Retrieved September 8, 2006. ""Article 5: The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. / Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.""
- ↑ C. S. Kuppuswamy (November 2, 2005). Terrorism in Indonesia : Role of the Religious Organisation. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved July 6, 2007. [dead link]
- ↑ Banlaoi, Rommel (2006). "Radical Muslim Terrorism in the Philippines". in Tan, Andrew. Handbook on Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.
- ↑ "Presidential Approval Ratings – George W. Bush". Gallup. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
- ↑ Pooley, Eric. "Mayor of the World". Time 2001 Person of the Year (Time). Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ Barrett, Devlin (December 23, 2003). "9/11 Fund Deadline Passes". CBS News. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "'Shadow Government' News To Congress". CBS News. March 2, 2002. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- ↑ American Civil Liberties Union (September 3, 2003). "Uncle Sam Asks: "What The Hell Is Going On Here?" in New ACLU Print and Radio Advertisements". Press release. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ↑ Eggen, Dan (September 30, 2004). "Key Part of Patriot Act Ruled Unconstitutional". Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- ↑ "Federal judge rules 2 Patriot Act provisions unconstitutional". CNN. September 26, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- ↑ VandeHei, Jim; Dan Eggen (January 5, 2006). "Cheney Cites Justifications For Domestic Eavesdropping". Washington Post. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". CNN. September 17, 2001. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "U.S. Officials Should Have Been Better Prepared For Hate Crime Wave". Human Rights Watch. November 14, 2002. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- ↑ "Many minority groups were victims of hate crimes after 9-11". Ball State University. October 9, 2003. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- ↑ "American Backlash: Terrorist Bring War Home in More Ways Than One" (PDF). SAALT. 2003. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- ↑ Thayil, Jeet (October 12, 2001). "645 racial incidents reported in week after September 11". India Abroad.
- ↑ American Muslim Leaders. "Muslim Americans Condemn Attack". ISNA. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
- ↑ Beaulieu, Dan (September 12, 2001). "Muslim groups around world condemn the killing of innocents". Agence France Presse – English.
- ↑ Davis, Joyce M. (September 13, 2001). "Muslims condemn attacks, insist Islam not violent against innocents". Knight Ridder Washington Bureau.
- ↑ Witham, Larry (September 12, 2001). "Muslim groups decry attacks; No cause justifies the 'immoral' act, U.S. councils say". The Washington Times.
- ↑ Hertzberg, Hendrik (September 11, 2006). "Lost love". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- ↑ "Attacks draw mixed response in Mideast". CNN.com. September 12, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- ↑ "U.S. President Bush's speech to United Nations". CNN. November 10, 2001. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
- ↑ Pakistan|Musharraf bullied into supporting war on terror. Dawn.Com (2009-12-09). Retrieved on 2010-03-16.
- ↑ Khan, Aamer Ahmed (May 4, 2005). "Pakistan and the 'key al-Qaeda' man". BBC. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ Hamilton, Stuart (August 24, 2002). "September 11, the Internet, and the effects on information provision in Libraries" (PDF). 68th IFLA Council and Conference. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "G8 counter-terrorism cooperation since September 11 backgrounder". Site Internet du Sommet du G8 d'Evian. Retrieved September 14, 2006.
- ↑ Walsh, Courtney C (March 7, 2002). "Italian police explore Al Qaeda links in cyanide plot". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "SE Asia unites to smash militant cells". CNN. May 8, 2002. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ Talanian, Nancy (2002). "A Guide to Provisions of the USA Patriot Act and Federal Executive Orders that threaten civil liberties" (PDF). Bill of Rights Defense Committee. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ "Reform the Patriot Act – Do not Expand It!". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved September 14, 2006. [dead link]
- ↑ "Liberty – Protecting Civil Liberties Promoting Human Rights : Terrorism". Liberty . Retrieved September 14, 2006.
- ↑ "Euro MPs urge Guantanamo closure". BBC News. June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ↑ Mendez, Juan E. (March 13, 2002). "Detainees in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Request for Precautionary Measures, Inter-Am. C.H.R.". University of Minnesota. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
- ↑ "USA: Release or fair trials for all remaining Guantánamo detainees". Amnesty International. May 2, 2008. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- ↑ Michael G. Schechter (2005). United Nations Global Conferences. Routledge. pp. 177–182. ISBN 0415343801.
- ↑ "UK | Muslim community targets racial tension". BBC News. September 19, 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- ↑ "Final Report on the Collapse of World Trade Center Building 7" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. November 2008. pp. 25–8. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- ↑ "Testimony of Dr. W. Gene Corley" (PDF). American Society of Civil Engineers. May 1, 2002. Retrieved June 10, 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ Bazant, Zdenek P.; Mathieu Verdure (March 2007). "Mechanics of Progressive Collapse: Learning from World Trade Center and Building Demolitions" (PDF). Journal of Engineering Mechanics (American Society of Civil Engineers) 133 (3): 308–319. doi :10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2007)133:3(308). Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ↑ "Abstracts: Bush rejects Taliban offer to surrender bin Laden. Flying gunships bombard Taliban heartland. U.S. rejects deal on Kandahar". Faqs.org. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Bush foreign policy approved by only 17% of Europeans Boston Globe, July 23, 2009, Retrieved: August 23, 2009.