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Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney

46th Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
President George W. Bush

In office
March 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
President George H. W. Bush

In office
January 3, 1989 – March 20, 1989
Leader Robert H. Michel

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Wyoming's At-large district
In office
January 3, 1979 – March 20, 1989

Born January 30, 1941 (1941-01-30) (age 79)
Lincoln, Nebraska
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Lynne Cheney
Children Elizabeth Cheney
Mary Cheney
Residence McLean, Virginia
Jackson, Wyoming
Alma mater University of Wyoming Wikipedia (B.A./M.A.)
Profession Politician
Religion Methodist
Signature Dick Cheney's signature

Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney[1] (born January 30, 1941) served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 under George W. Bush. He briefly served as Acting President of the United States on two occasions during which Bush underwent medical procedures.

Cheney was raised in Casper, Wyoming Wikipedia. He began his political career as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger, eventually working his way into the White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations, where he served the latter as White House Chief of Staff Wikipedia. In 1978, Cheney was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Wyoming; he was reelected five times, eventually becoming House Minority Whip. Cheney was selected to be the Secretary of Defense during the presidency of George H. W. Bush, holding the position for the majority of Bush's term. During this time, Cheney oversaw the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, among other actions.

Out of office during the Clinton presidency, Cheney was chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000.

Early White House appointmentsEdit

File:Ford meets with Rumsfeld and Cheney, April 28, 1975.jpg

Cheney's political career began in 1969, as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger during the Richard Nixon Administration. He then joined the staff of Donald Rumsfeld, who was then Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity from 1969–70.[2] He held several positions in the years that followed: White House Staff Assistant in 1971, Assistant Director of the Cost of Living Council from 1971–73, and Deputy Assistant to the president from 1974–1975. As deputy assistant, Cheney suggested several options in a memo to Rumsfeld, including use of the US Justice Department, that the Ford administration could use to limit damage from an article, published by The New York Times, in which investigative reporter Seymour Hersh reported that Navy submarines had tapped into Soviet undersea communications as part of a highly classified program.[3]

Cheney was Assistant to the President under Gerald Ford. When Rumsfeld was named Secretary of Defense, Cheney became White House Chief of Staff Wikipedia, succeeding Rumsfeld.[2] He later was campaign manager for Ford's 1976 presidential campaign.[4]


In 1978, Cheney was elected to represent Wyoming in the U.S. House of Representatives and succeed retiring Congressman Teno Roncalio, having defeated his Democrat Wikipedia opponent, Bill Bailey. Cheney was reelected five times, serving until 1989. He was Chairman of the Republican Policy Committee from 1981 to 1987 when he was elected Chairman of the House Republican Conference. The following year, he was elected House Minority Whip.[5]


File:Ronald Reagan with Dick Cheney.jpg

He voted against the creation of the U.S. Department of Education, citing his concern over budget deficits and expansion of the federal government, and claiming that the Department was an encroachment on states' rights.[6] He voted against funding Head Start Wikipedia, but reversed his position in 2000.[7]

In 1986, after President Ronald Reagan vetoed a bill to impose economic sanctions on South Africa for its policy of apartheid, Cheney was one of 83 Representatives to vote against overriding Reagan's veto.[8] In later years, he articulated his opposition to unilateral sanctions against many different countries, stating "they almost never work"[9] and that in that case they might have ended up hurting the people instead.[10]

In 1986, Cheney, along with 145 Republicans and 31 Democrats, voted against a non-binding Congressional resolution calling on the South African government to release Nelson Mandela Wikipedia from prison, after the Democrats defeated proposed amendments that would have required Mandela to renounce violence sponsored by the African National Congress (ANC) and requiring it to oust the communist faction from its leadership; the resolution was defeated. Appearing on CNN, Cheney addressed criticism for this, saying he opposed the resolution because the ANC "at the time was viewed as a terrorist organization and had a number of interests that were fundamentally inimical to the United States."[11]

Cheney also served as ranking minority member of the Congressional committee investigating the Iran-Contra affair Wikipedia.[2][12] He promoted Wyoming's petroleum and coal businesses as well,[13] and as a result, the federal building in Casper, a regional center of the fossil fuel industry, is named the Dick Cheney Federal Building.[14]

House Minority WhipEdit

In December 1988, the House Republicans elected Cheney as Minority Whip, the second spot under the Minority Leader.[5] He served for two and a half months before he was appointed Secretary of Defense instead of former Texas Senator John G. Tower, whose nomination had been rejected by the Senate in March 1989.[15]

Secretary of DefenseEdit

File:Secretary of Defense Richard B. Cheney, official portrait.jpg
File:Bush and Cheney 1991.jpg
File:Cheney delivering speech before an AEGIS ship is commissioned.JPEG

President George H. W. Bush nominated Cheney for the office of Secretary of Defense immediately after the US Senate failed to confirm John Tower for that position.[16] The senate confirmed Cheney by a vote of 92 to 0[16] and he served in that office from March 1989 to January 1993. He directed the United States invasion of Panama and Operation Desert Storm in the Middle East. In 1991 he was awarded the [{wplink|Presidential Medal of Freedom}} by Bush.[5]

Early tenureEdit

Cheney worked closely with Pete Williams, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, and Paul Wolfowitz, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, from the beginning of his tenure. He focused primarily on external matters, and left most internal Pentagon management to Deputy Secretary of Defense Donald J. Atwood, Jr.[15]

Budgetary practicesEdit

Cheney's most immediate issue as Secretary of Defense was the Department of Defense Wikipedia budget. Cheney deemed it appropriate to cut the budget and downsize the military, following President Ronald Reagan Wikipedia's peacetime defense buildup at the height of the Cold War Wikipedia.[17] As part of the fiscal year 1990 budget, Cheney assessed the requests from each of the branches of the armed services for such expensive programs as the B-2 Wikipedia stealth bomber, the V-22 Wikipedia Osprey tilt-wing helicopter, the Aegis destroyer Wikipedia and the {wplink|MX missile}}, totaling approximately $4.5 billion in light of changed world politics.[15] Cheney opposed the V-22 program, which Congress had already appropriated funds for, and initially refused to issue contracts for it before relenting.[18] When the 1990 Budget came before Congress in the summer of 1989, it settled on a figure between the Administration's request and the House Armed Services Committee's recommendation.[15] In subsequent years under Cheney, the proposed and adopted budgets followed patterns similar to that of 1990. Early in 1991, he unveiled a plan to reduce military strength by the mid-1990s to 1.6 million, compared with 2.2 million when he entered office. Cheney's 1993 defense budget was reduced from 1992, omitting programs that Congress had directed the Department of Defense to buy weapons that it did not want, and omitting unrequested reserve forces.[15]

Over his four years as Secretary of Defense, Cheney downsized the military and his budgets showed negative real growth, despite pressures to acquire weapon systems advocated by Congress. The Department of Defense's total obligational authority in current dollars declined from $291 billion to $270 billion. Total military personnel strength decreased by 19 percent, from about 2.2 million in 1989 to about 1.8 million in 1993.[15]

Political climate and agendaEdit

Cheney publicly expressed concern that nations such as Iraq, Iran, and North Korea, could acquire nuclear components after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The end of the Cold War, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact obliged the first Bush Administration to reevaluate the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Wikipedia's (NATO's) purpose and makeup. Cheney believed that NATO should remain the foundation of European security relationships and that it would remain important to the United States in the long term; he urged the alliance to lend more assistance to the new democracies in Eastern Europe.[15]

Cheney's views on NATO reflected his skepticism about prospects for peaceful social development in the former Eastern Bloc countries, where he saw a high potential for political uncertainty and instability. He felt that the Bush Administration was too optimistic in supporting General Secretary of the CPSU Wikipedia Mikhail Gorbachev and his successor, Russian President Wikipedia Boris Yeltsin.[15] Cheney worked to maintain strong ties between the United States and its European allies.[19]

Cheney persuaded the Saudi Arabian aristocracy to allow bases for US ground troops and war planes in the nation. This was an important element of the success of the Gulf War, as well as a lightning-rod for Islamists who opposed having non-Muslim armies near their holy sites.[20]

International situationsEdit

Using economic sanctions and political pressure, the United States mounted a campaign to drive Panamanian ruler General Manuel Antonio Noriega from power after he fell from favour.[15] In May 1989, after Guillermo Endara had been duly elected President of Panama, Noriega nullified the election outcome, drawing intensified pressure. In October, Noriega suppressed a military coup, but in December, after soldiers of the Panamanian army killed a US serviceman, the United States invasion of Panama began under Cheney's direction. The stated reason for the invasion was to seize Noriega to face drug charges in the United States, protect US lives and property, and restore Panamanian civil liberties.[21] Although the mission was controversial,[22] US forces achieved control of Panama and Endara assumed the Presidency; Noriega was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.[23]

File:Cheney Gulf War news conference.jpg

In 1991, the Somali Civil War drew the world's attention. In August 1992, the United States began to provide humanitarian assistance, primarily food, through a military airlift. At President Bush's direction, Cheney dispatched the first of 26,000 US troops to Somalia as part of the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), designed to provide security and food relief.[15] Cheney's successors as Secretary of Defense, Les Aspin and William J. Perry, had to contend with both the Bosnian and Somali issues.

Private sector careerEdit

Between 1987 and 1989, during his last term in Congress, Cheney was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy organization.[24]

With the new Democratic administration under President Bill Clinton in January 1993, Cheney left the Department of Defense and joined the American Enterprise Institute. He also served a second term as a Council on Foreign Relations director from 1993 to 1995.[24] From 1995 until 2000, he served as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Halliburton, a Fortune 500 company and market leader in the energy sector.

Cheney's record as CEO was subject to some dispute among Wall Street analysts; a 1998 merger between Halliburton and Dresser Industries attracted the criticism of some Dresser executives for Halliburton's lack of accounting transparency.[25] During Cheney's tenure, Halliburton changed its accounting practices regarding revenue realization of disputed costs on major construction projects.[26] Cheney resigned as CEO of Halliburton on July 25, 2000. As vice president, he argued that this step removed any conflict of interest. Cheney's net worth, estimated to be between $30 million and $100 million, is largely derived from his post at Halliburton, as well as the Cheneys' gross income of nearly $8.82 million.[27]

He was also part of the board of advisors of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) before becoming vice president.[20]

Vice PresidencyEdit

2000 electionEdit

File:Vp 008.jpg

In early 2000, while serving as the CEO of Halliburton, Cheney headed then-Governor of Texas George W. Bush's vice-presidential search committee. On July 25, after reviewing Cheney's findings, Bush surprised some pundits by asking Cheney himself to join the Republican ticket.[2] Halliburton reportedly reached agreement on July 20 to allow Cheney to retire, with a package estimated at $20 million.[28]

A few months before the election Cheney put his home in Dallas up for sale and changed his drivers' license and voter registration back to Wyoming. This change was necessary to allow Texas' presidential electors to vote for both Bush and Cheney without contravening the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbids electors from voting for someone from their own state for both President and Vice-President.

Cheney campaigned against Al Gore's running mate, Joseph Lieberman, in the 2000 presidential election. Cheney, who had been typecast as being aloof during most of the campaign, was remarkably lively during his visit to Chicago, where he rode the L, danced the polka, served attendees kielbasa with stuffed cabbage and addressed a cheering crowd.[29]

While the election was undecided, the Bush-Cheney team was not eligible for public funding to plan a transition to a new administration. So, Cheney opened a privately funded transition office in Washington. This office worked to identify candidates for all important positions in the cabinet.[30] According to Craig Unger, Cheney advocated Donald Rumsfeld for the post of Secretary of Defense to counter the influence of Colin Powell at the State Department, and tried unsuccessfully to have Paul Wolfowitz named to replace George Tenet as director of the Central Intelligence Agency.[31]

First termEdit

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Cheney remained physically apart from Bush for security reasons. For a period, Cheney stayed at an undisclosed location, out of public view.[32]

On the morning of June 29, 2002, Cheney served as Acting President of the United States under the terms of the 25th Amendment to the Constitution, while Bush was undergoing a colonoscopy. Cheney acted as President from 11:09 UTC that day until Bush resumed the powers of the presidency at 13:24 UTC.[33][34]

Iraq WarEdit


Following 9/11, Cheney was instrumental in providing a primary justification for entering into a war with Iraq. Cheney helped shape Bush's approach to the "War on Terrorism", making numerous public statements alleging Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction,[35] and made repeated personal visits to CIA headquarters, where he questioned mid-level agency analysts on their conclusions.[36] Cheney continued to allege links between Saddam Hussein and al-Queda, even though President Bush received a classified President's Daily Brief on September 21, 2001 indicating the U.S. intelligence community had no evidence linking Saddam Hussein to the September 11th attacks and that "there was scant credible evidence that Iraq had any significant collaborative ties with Al Qaeda."[37] Furthermore, in 2004, the 9/11 Commission concluded that there was no "collaborative relationship" between Iraq and al Qaeda.[38]

Following the US invasion of Iraq, Cheney remained steadfast in his support of the war, stating that it would be an "enormous success story",[39] and made many visits to the country. He often criticized war critics, calling them "opportunists" who were peddling "cynical and pernicious falsehoods" to gain political advantage while US soldiers died in Iraq. In response, Senator John Kerry asserted, "It is hard to name a government official with less credibility on Iraq [than Cheney]."[40]

Second termEdit

File:Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus and Vice President Dick Cheney in Vilnius, Lithuania.jpg

Bush and Cheney were re-elected in the 2004 presidential election Wikipedia, running against John Kerry and his running mate, John Edwards

Disclosure of documentsEdit

File:Rumsfeld Bush Cheney.jpg

Cheney was a prominent member of the National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG),[41] commonly known as the Energy task force, which comprised energy industry representatives, including several Enron executives. After the Enron scandal, the Bush administration was accused of improper political and business ties. In July 2003, the Supreme Court ruled that the US Department of Commerce must disclose NEPDG documents, containing references to companies that had made agreements with the previous Iraqi government to extract Iraq's petroleum.[42]

Beginning in 2003, Cheney's staff opted not to file required reports with the National Archives and Records Administration office charged with assuring that the executive branch protects classified information, nor did it allow inspection of its record keeping.[43] Cheney refused to release the documents, citing his executive privilege to deny congressional information requests.[44][45] Media outlets such as Time magazine and CBS News questioned whether Cheney had created a "fourth branch of government" that was not subject to any laws.[46] A group of historians and open-government advocates filed a lawsuit in the US District Court for the District of Columbia, asking the court to declare that Cheney's vice-presidential records are covered by the Presidential Records Act of 1978 and cannot be destroyed, taken or withheld from the public without proper review.[47][48][49]

CIA leak scandalEdit

Main article: CIA leak scandal

On October 18, 2005, The Washington Post reported that the vice president's office was central to the investigation of the Valerie Plame CIA leak scandal, for Cheney's former chief of staff, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, was one of the figures under investigation.[50] Following an indictment, Libby resigned his positions as Cheney's chief of staff and assistant on national security affairs.

In February 2006, The National Journal reported that Libby had stated before a grand jury that his superiors, including Cheney, had authorized him to disclose classified information to the press regarding intelligence on Iraq's weapons .[51]

On September 8, 2006, Richard Armitage, former Deputy Secretary of State, publicly announced that he was the source of the revelation of Plame's status. Armitage said he was not a part of a conspiracy to reveal Plame's identity and did not know whether one existed.[52]

On March 6, 2007, Libby was convicted on four felony counts for obstruction of justice, perjury, and making false statements to federal investigators.[53]

Assassination attemptEdit

File:Dick Cheney Mitch McConnell Trent Lott 2007.jpg
Main article: 2007 Bagram Air Base bombing

On February 27, 2007, at about 10 a.m., a suicide bomber killed 23 people and wounded 20 more outside Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan during a visit by Cheney. Qari Yousef Ahmadi, a Taliban spokesman, claimed responsibility for the attack and said Cheney was its intended target. The Taliban claimed that Osama Bin Laden supervised the operation.[54] The bomb went off outside the front gate, however, while Cheney was inside the base and half a mile away. He reported hearing the blast, saying "I heard a loud boom...The Secret Service came in and told me there had been an attack on the main gate."[55] The purpose of Cheney's visit to the region had been to press Pakistan for a united front against the Taliban.[56]

Policy formulationEdit

File:Vice President Cheney Pope Benedict XVI on stage.jpg

Cheney has been characterised as the most powerful and influential Vice President in history.[57][58] Both supporters and detractors of Cheney regard him as a shrewd and knowledgeable politician who knows the functions and intricacies of the federal government. A sign of Cheney's active policy-making role was then-House Speaker Dennis Hastert's provision of an office near the House floor for Cheney[59] in addition to his office in the West Wing,[60] his ceremonial office in the Old Executive Office Building,[61] and his Senate offices (one in the Dirksen Senate Office Building and another off the floor of the Senate).[59][62]

Cheney has actively promoted an expansion of the powers of the presidency, saying that the Bush administration’s challenges to the laws which Congress passed after Vietnam and Watergate Wikipedia to contain and oversee the executive branch—the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, the Presidential Records Act, the Freedom of Information Act Wikipedia and the War Powers Resolution—are, in Cheney's words, "a restoration, if you will, of the power and authority of the president."[63][64]

File:Nancy Reagan Dick Cheney USS Ronald Reagan.jpg

In June 2007, the Washington Post summarized Cheney’s vice presidency in a Pulitzer Prize-winning[65] four-part series, based in part on interviews with former administration officials. The articles characterized Cheney not as a "shadow" president, but as someone who usually has the last words of counsel to the president on policies, which in many cases would reshape the powers of the presidency. When former Vice President Dan Quayle suggested to Cheney that the office was largely ceremonial, Cheney reportedly replied, "I have a different understanding with the president." The articles described Cheney as having a secretive approach to the tools of government, indicated by the use of his own security classification and three man-sized safes in his offices.[66]

The articles described Cheney’s influence on decisions pertaining to detention of suspected terrorists and the legal limits that apply to their questioning, especially what constitutes torture.[67] They characterized Cheney as having the strongest influence within the administration in shaping budget and tax policy in a manner that assures "conservative orthodoxy."[68] They also highlighted Cheney’s behind-the-scenes influence on the administration’s environmental policy to ease pollution controls for power plants, facilitate the disposal of nuclear waste, open access to federal timber resources, and avoid federal constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, among other issues. The articles characterized his approach to policy formulation as favoring business over the environment.[69]

In June 2008, Cheney allegedly attempted to block efforts by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to strike a controversial US compromise deal with North Korea over the communist state's nuclear program.[70]

In July 2008, a former Environmental Protection Agency official stated publicly that Cheney's office had pushed significantly for large-scale deletions from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on the health effects of global warming "fearing the presentation by a leading health official might make it harder to avoid regulating greenhouse gases."[71] In October, when the report appeared with six pages cut from the testimony, The White House stated that the changes were made due to concerns regarding the accuracy of the science. However, according to the former senior adviser on climate change to Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Stephen Johnson, Cheney's office was directly responsible for nearly half of the original testimony being deleted.[71]

Cheney was indicted by a Texas grand jury for conflict of interest in his role as Vice President via his investments in a private company that runs detention centers in Texas.[72] The indictments were dismissed by the judge as invalid on December 1, 2008.[73]

On February 14, 2010, in an appearance on ABC's This Week, Cheney reiterated his support of waterboarding and enhanced interrogation techniques for captured terrorist suspects, saying, "I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program."[74] It should be noted that either despite this advocacy or perhaps because of it, Cheney enjoys strong support from voters in the Republican Party.[75]

Post Vice-PresidencyEdit

Political activityEdit

The Washington Post reported in 2008 that Cheney purchased a home in McLean, Virginia (Washington suburbs), which he was to tear down for a replacement structure. He also maintains homes in Wyoming and on Maryland's Eastern Shore.[76]

Said to be writing a book,[77] his memoirs are likely to be published in spring 2011. The Washington Post reported[78] that the book will charge that in his second term George W. Bush ignored Cheney's advice and, in a word, went "soft". According to the article, Cheney "felt Bush was moving away from him." Cheney said Bush was "shackled by public reaction and the criticism he took." The article characterized the Cheney doctrine as "cast iron strength at all times—never apologize, never explain" while Bush moved towards a conciliatory approach. Personal factors also contributed to the growing distance between the two men. Cheney was dismayed when Mr. Bush forced his old friend and mentor Donald Rumsfeld out of the Pentagon in 2006. Cheney reportedly further accused Bush of abandoning Lewis "Scooter" Libby, likening his action to "leaving a soldier on the battlefield".[79] Cheney maintained a visible public profile after leaving office,[80] being especially critical of Obama administration policies on national security.[81][82]

In May 2009, Cheney spoke of his support for same-sex marriage, becoming one of the most prominent Republican politicians to do so. Speaking to the National Press Club, Cheney stated: "People ought to be free to enter into any kind of union they wish, any kind of arrangement they wish. I do believe, historically, the way marriage has been regulated is at a state level. It's always been a state issue, and I think that's the way it ought to be handled today."[83]

Although, by custom, a former Vice President receives unofficial six month protection from the United States Secret Service, President Obama reportedly extended the protection period for Cheney.[84]

On July 11, 2009 CIA Director Leon E. Panetta told the Senate and House intelligence committees that the CIA withheld information about a secret counter-terrorism program from Congress for eight years on direct orders from Dick Cheney. Intelligence and Congressional officials have said the unidentified program did not involve the CIA interrogation program and did not involve domestic intelligence activities. They have said the program was started by the counter-terrorism center at the CIA shortly after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, but never became fully operational, involving planning and some training that took place off and on from 2001 until this year.[85] Wall Street Journal reported, citing former intelligence officials familiar with the matter, that the program was an attempt to carry out a 2001 presidential authorization to capture or kill al Qaeda operatives.[86]

Criticism of ObamaEdit

Cheney has been a strident critic of President Obama since the 2008 presidential election. On Dec. 29, 2009, four days after the attempted bombing of a US bound airliner from Nigeria via the Netherlands, Cheney sharply criticized Obama: "[W]e are at war and when President Obama pretends we aren't, it makes us less safe. [...] Why doesn't he want to admit we're at war? It doesn't fit with the view of the world he brought with him to the Oval Office. It doesn't fit with what seems to be the goal of his presidency—social transformation—the restructuring of American society."[87] In response, White House Communications Director Dan Pfeiffer wrote on the official White House blog the following day, "[I]t is telling that Vice President Cheney and others seem to be more focused on criticizing the Administration than condemning the attackers. Unfortunately too many are engaged in the typical Washington game of pointing fingers and making political hay, instead of working together to find solutions to make our country safer."[88][89]

During a February 14, 2010 appearance on ABC's This Week, Cheney reiterated his criticism of the Obama administration's policies for handling suspected terrorists, criticizing the "mindset" of treating "terror attacks against the United States as criminal acts as opposed to acts of war".[74]

Personal lifeEdit

Cheney is a member of the United Methodist Church[90] and was "the first Methodist Vice President to serve under a Methodist president."[91]

His wife, Lynne Cheney, was Chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities from 1986 to 1996. She is now a public speaker, author, and a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. The couple have two children, Elizabeth and Mary, and six grandchildren. Elizabeth, his elder daughter, is married to Philip J. Perry, former General Counsel of the Department of Homeland Security. Mary Cheney, a former employee of the Colorado Rockies baseball team and Coors Brewing Company and campaign aide to the Bush re-election campaign, currently lives in Great Falls, Virginia with her longtime partner Heather Poe.[92]


Main article: Dick Cheney:Timeline


  1. Although the Vice President himself and his family pronounce his family name as Template:IPA-en Template:Respell, it is usually pronounced Template:IPA-en Template:Respell by the media and public-at-large. See Cheney Holds News Briefing with Republican House Leaders, Aired on CNN December 5, 2000, The Cheney Government in Exile
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cheney_video
  3. Lowell Bergman and Marlena Telvick (February 13, 2007). "Dick Cheney's Memos from 30 Years Ago". Public Broadcasting System FRONTLINE: News War. Retrieved February 13, 2008. 
  4. "People in the News: Dick Cheney". Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "The Board of Regents". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  6. "Dick Cheney on Education". Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  7. McIntyre, Robert S. (July 28, 2000). "Dick Cheney, Fiscal Conservative?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  8. Booker, Salih (2001). "The Coming Apathy: Africa Policy Under a Bush Administration". Retrieved December 18, 2007. 
  9. "Defending Liberty in a Global Economy". Cato Institute. June 23, 1998. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  10. Rosenbaum, David E. (July 28, 2000). "Cheney Slips in Explaining A Vote on Freeing Mandela". The New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2008. 
  11. "Cheney defends voting record, blasts Clinton on talk-show circuit". CNN. July 30, 2000. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  12. Sean Wilintz (July 9, 2007). "Mr. Cheney's Minority Report". The New York Times. 
  13. "Calm After Desert Storm". Hoover Institution. Summer 1993. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  14. United States House of Representatives: Barbara Cubin (1999). "Cheney Building Dedication to be Held in Casper". Press release. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 "Richard B. Cheney:17th Secretary of Defense". United States Department of Defense. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Taggart, Charles Johnson (1990). "Cheney, Richard Bruce". 1990 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. p. 85. ISBN Wikipedia 0-85229-522-7. 
  17. Bartels, Larry M. (June 1, 1991). "Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up". The American Political Science Review 85 (2): 457–474. doi Wikipedia:10.2307/1963169. ISSN Wikipedia 00030554. 
  18. Charlie Savage (November 26, 2006). "Hail to the chief: Dick Cheney's mission to expand -or 'restore' - the powers of the presidency". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 26, 2008. 
  19. Department of Defense (October 14, 1992). "Defense Department Report, Wednesday, October 14 (10/14/92)". Press release. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "President-elect G.W. Bush: Key Defense Appointments and Arms Control Policy". Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA). December 18, 2000. Retrieved December 13, 2007. 
  21. "Panama: Invasion of Panama". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. pp. 44. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  22. Baker, Russell (January 3, 1990). "Observer; Is This Justice Necessary?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  23. John Pike, ed (April 27, 2005). "Operation Just Cause". Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 "The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 - Historical Roster of Directors and Officers". 
  25. Henriques, Diana B.; Bergman, Lowell; Oppel, Richard A. Jr.; Moss, Michael (August 24, 2000). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN; Cheney Has Mixed Record In Business Executive Role". The New York Times. 
  26. Berenson, Alex; Bergman, Lowell (May 22, 2002). "Under Cheney, Halliburton Altered Policy On Accounting". The New York Times. 
  27. "Cheney's Halliburton Ties Remain". CBS News. September 26, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2007. 
  28. Henriques, Diana B.; Bergman, Lowell; Norris, Floyd (August 12, 2000). "The 2000 Campaign: The Republican Running Mate—Cheney Is Said to Be Receiving $20 Million Retirement Package". The New York Times. 
  29. Quest for the Presidency: Cheney dances, rides public train 09/05/00
  30. Appleman, Eric M.. "The New Administration Takes Shape". George Washington University. Retrieved November 13, 2007. 
  31. Unger, Craig (November 9, 2007). "How Cheney took control of Bush's foreign policy". Retrieved November 13, 2007. 
  32. "The Running Mate". PBS. Retrieved January 2, 2008. 
  33. White House Press Secretary (June 22, 2002). "Statement by the Press Secretary". Retrieved January 9, 2008. 
  34. CNN Transcripts (June 29, 2002). "White House Physician Provides Update on Bush's Condition". Retrieved June 4, 2006. 
  35. "Iraq: The War Card". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved July 20, 2010. 
  36. "Frontline: The Dark Side". Public Broadcasting System. June 20, 2006. Retrieved February 6, 2008. 
  37. "Key Bush Intelligence Briefing Kept From Hill Panel", National Journal, November 22, 2005.
  38. Pincus, Walter; Dana Milbank (2004-06-17). "Al Qaeda-Hussein Link Is Dismissed". Washington Post. 
  39. "Cheney: Iraq will be 'enormous success story'". CNN. June 25, 2005. Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
  40. "Cheney calls war critics "opportunists"". MSNBC. November 17, 2005. Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
  41. "Dick Cheney on Energy & Oil: Member of Bush’s National Energy Policy Development Group". National Energy Policy Report. May 2, 2001. Retrieved January 2, 2008. 
  42. "Judicial Watch, Inc. vs. National Energy Policy Development Group". Judicial Watch, Inc. 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2007. 
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Further readingEdit

Works by
  • Professional Military Education: An Asset for Peace and Progress : A Report of the Crisis Study Group on Professional Military Education (Csis Report) 1997. ISBN 0-89206-297-5
  • Kings of the Hill: How Nine Powerful Men Changed the Course of American History 1996. ISBN 0-8264-0230-5
Works about

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